Rehabilitation Guidelines for Total Ankle Replacement


Initial rehabilitation phase
0-4 weeks

Goals:
  • To be safely and independently mobile with appropriate walking aid, adhering to weight bearing status
  • To be independent with home exercise programme as appropriate
  • To understand self management / monitoring, e.g. skin sensation, colour, swelling, temperature, circulation
Restrictions:
  • Ensure that weight bearing restrictions are adhered to:
    • Total Ankle Replacement (TAR):
      • Non Weight Bearing (NWB) for 2 weeks in Back Slab
      • Below Knee Plaster of Paris (BK POP) at 2 weeks. Progress to Full Weight Bearing (FWB) in POP.
      • POP removed at 4 weeks. May require aircast boot. FWB.
    • If any other surgical technique used ensure you check any restrictions with team as these may differ from TAR alone
  • Elevation
  • If sedentary employment, may be able to return to work from 4 weeks post-operatively, as long as provisions to elevate leg, and no complications
Treatment:
  • Likely to be in POP
  • Pain-relief: Ensure adequate analgesia
  • Elevation: ensure elevating leg with foot higher than waist
  • Exercises: teach circulatory exercises
  • Education: teach how to monitor sensation, colour, circulation, temperature, swelling, and advise what to do if concerned
  • Mobility: ensure patient independent  with transfers and mobility, including stairs if necessary

Recovery rehabilitation phase
4 weeks – 3 months

Goals:
  • To be independently mobile out of aircast boot
  • To achieve full range of movement
  • To optimise normal movement
Restrictions:
  • Ensure adherence to weight bearing status.
  • No strengthening against resistance until at least 3 months post-operatively of any tendon transfers if performed.
  • Do not stretch any tendon transfers / ligament reconstructions if performed. They will naturally lengthen over a 6 month period
Treatment:
  • Pain relief
  • Advice / Education
  • Posture advice / education
  • Mobility: ensure safely and independently mobile adhering to appropriate weight bearing restrictions. Progress off walking aids as able once reaches FWB stage.
  • Gait Re-education
  • Wean out of aircast boot once advised to do so, and provision of plaster shoe as appropriate, if patient unable to get into normal footwear
  • Exercises:   
    • Passive range of movement (PROM)
    • Active assisted range of movement (AAROM)
    • Active range of movement (AROM)
    • Strengthening exercises as appropriate
    • Core stability work
    • Balance / proprioception work once appropriate
    • Stretches of tight structures as appropriate (e.g. Achilles Tendon), not of tendon transfers / ligament reconstructions if performed.
    • Review lower limb biomechanics. Address issues as appropriate.
    • If tendon transfer performed, encourage isolation of transfer activation without overuse of other muscles. Biofeedback likely to be useful.
  • Swelling Management
  • Manual Therapy:
    • Soft tissue techniques as appropriate
    • Joint mobilisations as appropriate ensuring awareness of osteotomy sites and those joints which may be fused, and therefore not appropriate to mobilise
  • Monitor sensation, swelling, colour, temperature, circulation
  • Orthotics if required via surgical team
  • Hydrotherapy if appropriate
  • Pacing advice as appropriate

Intermediate rehabilitation phase
12 weeks – 6 months

Goals:
  • Independently mobile unaided
  • Wearing normal footwear
  • Optimise normal movement
  • Grade 5 muscle strength around ankle
  • Grade 4 muscle strength of tendon transfers if performed
Treatment:
Further progression of the above treatment:
  • Pain relief
  • Advice / Education
  • Posture advice / education
  • Mobility: Progression of mobility and function
  • Gait Re-education
  • Exercises:   
    • Range of movement
    • Strengthening exercises as appropriate
    • Core stability work
    • Balance / proprioception work
    • Stretches of tight structures as appropriate (e.g. Achilles Tendon), not of transfers / ligament reconstructions if performed.
    • Review lower limb biomechanics. Address issues as appropriate.
    • If tendon transfer performed progress isolation of transfer activation without overuse of other muscles. Biofeedback likely to be useful.
  • Swelling Management
  • Manual Therapy:
    • Soft tissue techniques as appropriate
    • Joint mobilisations as appropriate ensuring awareness of those which may be fused and therefore not appropriate to mobilise
  • Monitor sensation, swelling, colour, temperature, circulation
  • Orthotics if required via surgical team
  • Hydrotherapy if appropriate
  • Pacing advice as appropriate


Final rehabilitation phase
6 months – 1 year
Goals:
  • Return to gentle no-impact / low-impact sports
  • Establish long term maintenance programme
  • Grade 4 or 5 muscle strength of tendon transfers if performed
Treatment:
  • Mobility / function: Progression of mobility and function, increasing dynamic control with specific training to functional goals
  • Gait Re-education
  • Exercises:   
    • Progression of exercises including range of movement, strengthening, transfer activation, balance and proprioception, core stability
  • Swelling Management
  • Manual Therapy:
    • Soft tissue techniques as appropriate
    • Joint mobilisations as appropriate ensuring awareness of those which may be fused and therefore not appropriate to mobilise
  • Pacing advice 
Failure to progress
If a patient is failing to progress, then consider the following:
POSSIBLE PROBLEM
ACTION
Swelling
Ensure elevating leg regularly
Use ice as appropriate if normal skin sensation and no contraindications
Decrease amount of time on feet
Pacing
Use walking aids
Circulatory exercises
If decreases overnight, monitor closely
If does not decrease overnight, refer back to surgical team or to GP
Pain
Decrease activity
Ensure adequate analgesia
Elevate regularly
Decrease weight bearing and use walking aids as appropriate
Pacing
Modify exercise programme as appropriate
If persists, refer back to surgical team or to GP
Breakdown of Wound e.g inflammation, bleeding, infection
Refer to surgical team or to GP
Transfer not activating
Start working in NWB gravity eliminated position with AAROM and then build up as able
Biofeedback
Ensure adequate analgesia as appropriate
Ensure swelling under control as appropriate
Ensure foot neutral when mobilising to avoid excessive shear. Consider orthotics referral via surgical team if unable to keep neutral
Refer back to surgical team if no improvement
Numbness / altered sensation
Review immediate post-operative status if possible
Ensure swelling under control
If new onset or increasing refer back to surgical team or GP
If static, monitor closely, but inform surgical team and refer back if deteriorates or if concerned
Summary of evidence for physiotherapy guidelines
A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify research relating to surgery for tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction and subsequent rehabilitation. After reviewing the articles and information, the physiotherapy guidelines were produced on the best available evidence.
  • Ali et al (2007) “Intermediate results of Buechel Pappas unconstrained uncemented Total Ankle Replacement for osteoarthritis” The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 46, (1): 16-20
  • Buechel et al (2004) “Twenty-year evaluation of cementless mobile-bearing Total Ankle Replacements” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 424, 19-26
  • Coetzee J & Castro M (2004) “Accurate measurement of ankle range of motion after Total Ankle Arthroplasty” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 424, 27-31
  • Conti S & Wong YS (2001) “Complications of Total Ankle Replacement” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 391, 105-114
  • Griesberg J & Hansen S (2003) “Total Ankle Arthroplasty in the advanced flatfoot” Techniques in Foot and Ankle Surgery 2, (3): 152-161
  • Knecht et al (2004) “The Agility Total Ankle Arthroplasty” The Journal of Bone and joint Surgery 86-A, (6): 1161-1171
  • Kobayashi et al (2004) “Ankle arthroplasties generate wear particles similar to knee arthroplasties” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 424, 69-72
  • Kotnis et al (2006) “The management of failed ankle replacement” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 88-B, (8): 1039-1047
  • Lalonde K & Conti S (2006) “Ankle arthritis: current status of ankle replacement versus fusion and other treatment modalities” Current Opinion in Orthopaedics 17, (2): 117-123
  • Mendolia et al (1005) “Lond term (10-14 years) results of the Ramses Total Ankle Arthroplasty” Techniques in Foot and Ankle Surgery 4, (3): 160-173
  • Spirt et al (2004) “Complications and failure after Total Ankle Arthroplasty” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 86-A, (6): 1172-1178
  • Tochigi et al (2005) “The effect of accuracy of implantation on range of movement of the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 87-B, (5): 736-740
  • Valderrabano et al (2006) “Sports and recreation activity of ankle arthritis patients before and after Total Ankle Replacement” The American Journal of Sports Medicine 34, (6): 993-999
Sumber :
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital In association with the UCL Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science

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Perbandingan Antara High Grade dan Low Grade Teknik Mobilisasi untuk Capsulitis Adhesiva pada Bahu : Randomized Controlled Trial


Comparison of High-Grade and Low-Grade Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder: Randomized Controlled Trial.

Henricus M Vermeulen, Piet M Rozing, Wim R Obermann, Saskia le Cessie and Thea PM Vliet Vlieland PHYS THER. 2006; 86:355-368.


ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose. In many physical therapy programs for subjects with 
adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, mobilization techniques are an important 

part of the intervention. The purpose of this study was to compare the 

effectiveness of high-grade mobilization techniques (HGMT) with that of 

low-grade mobilization techniques (LGMT) in subjects with adhesive capsulitis 

of the shoulder. 


Subjects. One hundred subjects with unilateral adhesive 

capsulitis lasting 3 months or more and a 50% decrease in passive joint 

mobility relative to the nonaffected side were enrolled in this study. 

Methods

Subjects randomly assigned to the HGMT group were treated with intensive 

passive mobilization techniques in end-range positions of the glenohumeral 

joint, and subjects in the LGMT group were treated with passive mobilization 

techniques within the pain-free zone. The duration of treatment was a 

maximum of 12 weeks (24 sessions) in both groups. Subjects were assessed at 

baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months by a masked assessor. Primary outcome 

measures included active and passive range of motion and shoulder disability

(Shoulder Rating Questionnaire [SRQ] and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire 

[SDQ]). An analysis of covariance with adjustments for baseline values 

and a general linear mixed-effect model for repeated measurements were 

used to compare the change scores for the 2 treatment groups at the various

time points and over the total period of 1 year, respectively. 

Results. Overall, 

subjects in both groups improved over 12 months. Statistically significant 

greater change scores were found in the HGMT group for passive abduction 

(at the time points 3 and 12 months), and for active and passive external 

rotation (at 12 months). A statistically significant difference in trend between 

both groups over the total follow-up period of 12 months was found for passive 

external rotation, SRQ, and SDQ with greater change scores in the HGMT 

group. 

Discussion and Conclusion. In subjects with adhesive capsulitis of the 

shoulder, HGMTs appear to be more effective in improving glenohumeral

joint mobility and reducing disability than LGMTs, with the overall differences 

between the 2 interventions being small. [Vermeulen HM, Rozing PM, 

Obermann WR, et al. Comparison of high-grade and low-grade mobilization 

techniques in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: 

randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2006;86:355–368.]

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